The production of white wines made from the following steps:
Reception and separation of musts
Upon receipt of the grapes, it forms a paste which preserves the skins and bruises, and is transferred to the cages to be subjected to a separation process musts. There, in a first phase, the juice flows slowly by gravity (desvinado) or by slight pressure (crushed) later. It is pointed out that the current trend in the production of white wines is to suppress the desvinado.
The first must from the desvinado, or crushed when the desvinado is removed, are characterized by higher quality and are called run juice, grape juice flower or tear. Its main features are a great lightness and finesse, aromatic, soft, floral and fruity.
Draining and pressing
The remaining dough remains much stronger for the loss of fluid and is subjected to pressures of increasing intensity. As a result of these pressures arise up to three different types of musts: the first musts (light pressure-drained), musts second (medium pressure) and third or press (strong pressure) musts. Each subsequently ferment qualities obtained separately to obtain different types of wine.
The residues that remain in the press are the marc that, as unfermented contain sugar and are called sweet or fresh marc. They may undergo different processes that result pomace and other alcoholic products.
The must thus obtained are provided with numerous suspended solids are mostly from the grape. By settling proceed to their separation. This process involves the static must stand for a day, but with special care not begin to ferment. Solids are falling to the bottom by its own weight and then, following a meticulous control, clean musts are decanted and transferred to stainless steel tanks for fermentation.
The solids clean must is fermented at a temperature ranging between 18 and 22º. This process makes both the splitting of sugars into alcohol and carbon evolution takes place in a slow and deliberate manner. The objective is to preserve wine aromas and thus obtain the highest possible final quality.
Alcoholic fermentation was performed for 10 and 15 days. The fermentation ends when the wine contains between 1 and 2 grams of sugar per liter, at which time, with little presence of sugars is completely dry. However, more and more scarce house completely dry white wines because they usually maintain a certain proportion of residual sugar for greater aromatic intensity.
The wines of the wettest areas, equipped with a high proportion of malic acid, absent wines from warmer places undergo a second fermentation called malolactic or maloalcoholic. By the action of bacteria (malolactic) or yeast (maloalcoholic), malic acid is converted to lactic acid or alcohol. This process can be performed either simultaneously with the fermentation and subsequently.
Racking and clarification
After fermentation, between the second half of November and early January, the wine is subjected to two or three racking to remove solid residues derived from the fermentation. However, after racking still often remain suspended solids that could degenerate, affecting the appearance of wine and giving odors and flavors.
To remove these particles wine undergoes a process of clarification that lasts about ten days. Consists in introducing a solid substance that drag and deposit debris in the tank bottom. Then proceeds to the filtration of wine: wine passing through other substances that retain the particles that still contains. The methods used in these processes are varied: from earth filters and filter plates to modern amicróbicos based sanitizers.
Finally, the wines are selected and separated by grades for through appropriate mixtures, it is intended each to a corresponding type depending on desired.