Let us see carefully the elaboration process for red wines:
Reception and stripping
Unlike white wine, make red not integers, but grapes that have been removed them scrape through a process called stripping clusters are used. The reason is simple: as color extraction is done by maceration, the presence of plant cluster structure would give the wine smells unpleasant herbaceous flavors, while affect its acid content and decrease their alcohol content.
Crushing and tumultuous fermentation
The dough obtained from crushed sulfur dioxide is added ingredient responsible for selecting the microbial fauna will intervene after fermentation. It will also help the extraction of color and better dissolution. Subsequently, the pulp is transferred to a tank, where fermentation is started, a process that should never exceed 30 ° C temperature. During the same, by the action of yeast, sugars are split into alcohol and carbon dioxide is clear, while the skin coloring matter dissolved in the liquid.
The carbonic gas evolved pushes the skins upwards, where they form a barrier called hat. In a process called traced, this layer is soaked with the fermenting must by pumps to activate the color extraction. The skin should also be removed periodically in an area known as bazuqueo operation.
Once the racking is completed maceration, ie the transfer of the liquid to another vessel where the fermentation is done ends. While the first part lasts 6-10 days and is known as tumultuous fermentation, the second stage lasts almost double, from 10 to 20 days depending on temperature, and called the slow fermentation. In this second phase continues to release carbon dioxide and must-wine hat is removed to continue flowing liquid, known as roll up operation that is usually done manually. Then, during the bleeding process is removed by gravity this must-wine called wort bleeding, a liquid with lots of color and roughness that, with time and good care, can produce quality wines.
The remaining marc are transferred to the press where, thanks to strong pressures, wine press, characterized by a low setting, rich in color and tannins and very astringent is obtained. Solid marc used in the distilleries ..
Racking and aging
During the transfer, the wine tank clean is lagging because in substance are accumulated solids. This rinsing process is favored by cold and low outside temperatures characteristic of winter. The wine takes on a purple and vermilion loses tone of his birth. Racking is repeated periodically, thus avoiding possible contamination produced by the breakdown in the wine of these solids.
After completing the above processes, which will decide his fate: immediate exit the market (Vino Joven) or varying process and aging (Vino de Crianza, Reserva Wine, Wine Gran Reserva).