Human handalsoacts toregulate otherfactors, such asthe conduction system(operations that definethe distribution ofplant leavesand clusters), pruning,soil enrichmentand treatmentof diseasesof the vine.
The vineis a plantwith a typical cycleof the temperate zones, beginning withthe springto finishwithleaf fallin autumn.Inallphases,thensummarizethe mostimportant to the qualityof our grapesareripening.
Forwinemaking, we respectthe life cycle ofthe plant, butwe have alsoperfected theirculturethrough aseries offield practices, includingpruningis included.The vine, being atreeandplantunlimited growthneeds to becontrolled,appropriateto the needsof thegrower.Thusobtaining ahealthyfruit,matureandqualityis ensured.
The phases of thelife cycle of thevinesummarizedfrom sevensteps.
First Phase.TheVegetativeNursing.This phaseis observed inthefall andthroughout thewinter.Makinga woodyplantappearanceasnogreensheetsornoplantstructure.The cause is thesoil temperature,anddoes not favorthe absorption ofnutrients bythe roots.At the end ofthis phase, thecryof the vineproduces.This meansthat the plantbeginsoperation, drivinga colorless liquidbypruning cuts. Second Phase.Fettle.Thisphase occursin late winterand earlyfirst.The plantbegins to "wake up"thewinter asthe budsbegin to swell.Theseswellingsor "delete"are caused bythe increase insoil temperature, which helpsabsorption functionsof the roots ofthe plant. Third Phase.Sprouting.Spring comesto the vine,slowlytransforming the structure ofthe plant.The first leavesbegin todevelop,and laterdetectedclusters.The spring temperaturesand typicalrainfallthis seasoncollaboratetodevelopthe plant. Fourth Phase.Flowering andFruit set.During the spring, the flowers ofthe vineand begin todeveloppollinate.Thefirstfruits are smallberries,shapeand sizeof a pea. Fifth Phase.Envero.This is one ofthe most important phasesof the cycle,as itis the beginningof ripening, coinciding with thebeginning of summer.This processtakes about15 days,in whichthe fruitbegins to changein sizeand thencolor.Inwhite grapeschanges from green toyellow, whilered grapesfrom green topurplish. Phase VI.Maturation.This process is themost important period,because it determines thequality of the harvest.It occursfrom mid-summer toearly fall.Itgrapecontinuallyenlarges,losesacidity andsugarsaccumulate.At theend of ripeningandharvestHarvestof the fruitproduced. Phase VII.Fall Foliage.At this stage, the leavesstop havingintense activitythey had inspring and summer,takinga browncolor.
As we have seen, the weather conditionsare amajor causeof the changesthat occur inthe plantthroughout theyear.Theweatheris not an exactscience and, therefore,many phenomena thatcan occurare rare...but thisis anothersubject matter.